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Issue Date: 3-May-2011
Authors: Rapisarda, Teresa
Title: Flavour measurements: several applications in cheese and animale feed analysis
Abstract: The acquisition of knowledge of the chemicals responsible for the characteristic flavours of foods and other products has long been the aim of researchers. In the last fifty years, numerous studies have been performed in attempts to find correlations between sensory qualities and objective instrumental measurements. Although modern instrumental techniques have considerably accelerated the steps of flavour research, there still remains much to be discovered in the field of flavour biochemistry. The valuation of a flavour is an usual human experience due to the response to a complex mixture of stimuli, originating from chemical substances, the volatile compounds of food and beverages before and during consumption, on the sensitive nerves in the mouth (taste) and nose (smell). Aroma intensity and flavour are the most important properties for the consumers to define good quality foods. Various procedures have been applied to the isolation of volatiles from complex matrices, such as, steam distillation and high-vacuum distillation techniques, direct extraction techniques, supercritical fluid extraction, simultaneous distillation extraction methods and headspace techniques. However, no ideal universal method exists for the simultaneous analysis of volatile (flavour) compounds, because each extraction technique presents advantages and at the same time disadvantages. Several instrumental analyses have been applied to isolate and identify the volatile compounds, and the most commonly used are gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In order to study the odour active compounds, gas chromatography olfactometry has been used, where the final detector is represented by trained human nose. The other instrumental approach recently proposed is the so-called 'electronic' or 'artificial' nose (SMart Nose), which allows to investigate the fingerprint of the volatile compounds of a food matrix. Representative examples of studies have been used to demonstrate the applications of Gas Chromatography Olfactometry and SMart Nose System to determine the odour active compounds and the fingerprint of volatile composition in dairy products and animal feeds, respectively.
Appears in Collections:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie

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