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Issue Date: 24-Feb-2015
Authors: Cinquerrui, Alessandro
Title: Sustainable approaches to control Calonectria diseases in ornamental nursery
Abstract: Calonectria species are important plant pathogens in ornamental plant nurseries. The chemical control of Calonectria diseases is necessary, but alternative management strategies would be re-evaluated to comply with the latest European Regulations on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides (Directive 2009/128/EC). Several experiments were carried out to develop integrated pest management (IPM) programs for controlling of leaf spot, stem rot and crown and root rot caused by several Calonectria species on several ornalmental plants. In vitro preliminary assays showed a variable antagonistic activity of some Trichoderma spp., Clonostachys rosea and Penicillium oxalicum. In vivo experiments showed that a good control of Calonectria diseases is achieved by applying boscalid+pyraclostrobin or cyprodinil+fludioxonil in combinations with different BCAs belonging to the genus Bacillus, Trichoderma and Streptomyces. All biological and integrated treatments were able to manage stem rot on Dodonaea viscosa, crown and root rot on Polygala myrtifolia and leaf spot on Metrosideros spp. and Callistemon spp. Since Calonectria species are soil-borne pathogens producing microsclerotia (that represent the primary inoculum) in the soil, the reduction or suppression of this inoculum is an important task of management of this pathogen. The first set of experiments of this PhD thesis on soil fumigation with metham-sodium and dazomet show clearly excellent performances in reducing Calonectria microsclerotia viability both in microcosm and in nursery when applied at label and sub-label rats. Moreover, in accordance with the Directive 2009/128/EC on the Sustainable Use of Pesticides , in these experiment these fumigants were applied at rates lower and lower and in association with gas-tight tarps, such as VIF and TIF. The data showed that in these conditions both fumigants were able to reduce Calonectria microsclerotia, with a consequent reduction of amount of fumigants (up to 5-fold reduced). In addition, the use of TIF barrier offered a better retain capacity of fumigant than VIF, with a lower emission of pollutant molecules to the atmosphere and a lower impact in rhizosphere.
Appears in Collections:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie

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